The Research Agenda 2008-2012 includes five research programmes focussing on collection-management. Their binding factor is ‘valuation’.
Development of methods and techniques to objectify the value and appreciation of cultural heritage.more info >
Under 'valuation' in relation to heritage we mean making substantiated and verifiable statements about the value of an object or a collection, based on a question falling under an appropriate frame of reference and concerning certain stakeholders. Predetermined and predefined criteria are applied.
This explicit defining of an assigned value is necessary to steer preservation, development and utilisation and to enable a societal basis for heritage to emerge. After all, who determines the value of the collection now that the 'expert' no longer counts as the sole authority? How do you valuate an object or collection if there is no objective measurable value? How do you provide sufficient societal support for heritage at a time when the cultural sector is under pressure?
The Value and Valuation programme aimed to make the various players in the heritage field (owners, managers, policy makers and funders) aware of the importance of the intrinsic (non-financial) value and valuation of cultural heritage, and to develop methods and techniques to attribute value to objects and collections. As valuation benefits from a broad interdisciplinary approach, the emphasis lay on dialogue and collaboration with external partners. A new system was developed in close consultation with the museum world to facilitate the process of value attribution. This has resulted in the publication of On the museum scales: collection valuation in six steps.
This practical guide takes the user through the valuation process step-by-step and results in a description of object/collection significance, a valuation ranking or grouping, or an investment plan. With well-founded arguments it is possible to explain to others the value of an object or collection and the reasons for the value. This facilitates decision-making on interventions, making conflicting interests negotiable and making stories behind the collection accessible.
Research into the effectiveness of methods and means to make heritage and related knowledge accessible online.more info >
New media forms a tempting alternative to traditional analogue guides for the public as staff and resources in museums are generally scarce. But do they function as well or better than gallery texts, guided or audio tours?
Are some applications more effective than others? Are there any applications that actually generate more visitors, and if so, which?
The Accessibility programme focused on the effectiveness of virtual resources to make heritage visible and to interest new types of public. Possibilities include apps, 3D and AR techniques, and also social media like Facebook and YouTube. But what to choose from the overwhelming number of new techniques?
The RCE carried out an inventory to provide collection managers with an understanding of the developments and possibilities of new media (and the institutions that can assist in developing applications). This also aimed to chart the applications most effective for specific objectives for both content and generating visitors. The projects on which these questions were tested were diverse in nature:
- Conservation of two textile objects of polypropylene. In this project, the practical applicability of conservation knowledge about polypropylene was tested. In addition a conservation treatment of polypropylene was recorded for educational objectives and the conservation file placed online. As a result, both the object and the information are permanently accessible for consultation by collection managers and conservators.
- Imago revisited: research into two installations in a case study using good practice (developed during the Inside Installations project) regarding the daily and long-term management of complex (multimedia) installations.
- Generating and sharing knowledge online about the conservation of contemporary art in the two-year European project PRACTICs by museums, institutes and universities. Associated with this was a public testing of the film Installation Art: Who Cares? as an educational tool, to investigate how much visitors appreciated having a look 'behind the scenes'.
- CARTA project, an inventory of documentation projects and documentation systems with which research findings are linked to locations and artworks.
- Inventory of the operation of two thematic networks (INCCA Education and Postdoc Network) under INCCA.
- Archiving the website with all details of the Inside Installations project, the preservation and presentation of Installation Art Project (2004-2007), a research into the re-installation and documentation of 33 complex multimedia installations.
- Participation of the RCE as a research partner in the pilot project of MuseumApp, under which the effectiveness of this app for heritage institutions was studied.
- Development of guidelines to increase the effectiveness of museum institutions online.
Enrichment of the object in its context on the basis of technical art history and research, for the benefit of its conservation and restoration.more info >
Objects that have been handed down to us from the past can tell a story of their history of creation and how they have changed over time.
The Object in Context programme makes such stories accessible through research on the material object and its contextual clues (historical evidence). In addition, the program focuses on questions concerning the restoration and conservation of a range of objects, from classical antiquity to contemporary art, from paintings and textiles to metal and plastics.
Under Object in Context, analytical chemistry researchers and forensic specialists delve into cause and effect. Besides a keen eye for detail, they employ a research laboratory and technological methods that enable the visualization of evidence visible only at a molecular level. Although analytical research often forms the basis for research, collaboration with other disciplines, such as art and cultural history, is always sought as well.
Arts meets sciences
A connecting link between the many projects under Object in Context is the extent to which ageing is regarded as acceptable. That limit of acceptance is subjective and cannot be considered purely from the material-technical perspective. Thus the theme of 'perception of the surface' is key in several projects. This involves coupling the scientific 'looking' through apparatus with subjective, human visual perception.
Download here the comprehensive introduction to the Object in Context program, including an introduction to the projects in PDF.
European collaboration in the field of the conservation and restoration of cultural heritage.Reading modeshare
CHARISMA (Cultural Heritage Advanced Research Infrastructures: Synergy for a Multidisciplinary Approach to conservation/restoration) is a European funded project in which 22 partners consisting of museums, universities and research institutions collaborate.
The key concepts in CHARISMA are multidisciplinary, scientific level research on cultural heritage and collaboration. This programme connects scientific knowledge in the field of cultural heritage to advanced technology. Innovation and the further development of standards go hand in hand with knowledge exchange. Through the integrated approach a knowledge network has been created with scientific research, conservation and technical art history as the cornerstones. Collaboration optimizes access to existing international scientific infrastructure.
The CHARISMA consortium consists of 22 international participants. The RCE is involved in a large number of CHARISMA subprojects that are grouped under three main activities: Joint Research Activities, Networking and Access.
Joint Research Activities
New analysis techniques and methods are developed and/or modified under CHARISMA activities. For RCE the emphasis lies on research into natural and synthetic dyes. The key question was how the path can be traced from analytical results back to the original material. For example, tracing a dye identified from a textile back to the plant from which the dye was extracted in the past.
Textile dyeing workshops
By researching the cultivation conditions, recipes and procedures, and making reconstructions, the production process of dyes can be formulated. During three workshops textile dyeing was carried out following old recipes and sometimes using newly cultivated plants. This resulted in the reconstruction and identification of a range of dyes. By dyeing varying tints the resulting palette was refined and subsequently, organic pigments could be reproduced from this rich palette of colours.
Thanks to analytical techniques this research has contributed to the evidence-based interpretation of the original appearance of cultural material, an aspect that can dramatically change over time. For example, the faded colours of textiles can be resurrected using this approach. At the same time, the study provided an important contribution to an integrated scientific methodology.
Knowledge of cultural heritage is shared through symposia, expert meetings, CHARISMA workshops and training courses. The RCE is fully involved through participating and organising such events. For instance, in 2013 the RCE organised a course on stone conservation with participants from 15 countries. The participants' contributions of case studies provided a diverse overview of practical problems and signified an addition to knowledge transfer on the latest developments in stone conservation by international experts.
A guideline for monuments
One example of a network subproject was the formulation of a questionnaire that defines the conservation problems of a monument, building or site in a structured manner. The guideline is based on common issues, but also takes specific materials as a starting point. The aim is to assist experts in finding solutions to problems in cultural heritage conservation practice.
Consortium partners open their doors to foreign guest researchers. This involves facilitating access to archival materials, instruments and the consortium's body of knowledge for professionals in the cultural heritage field. For instance, Applications can be submitted for travel and research costs.
The RCE is involved in ArchLab, the provision of RCE research data (in the form of file folders) held by the RCE library in Amsterdam. Samples from the archive can also be analysed once again using techniques that were previously unavailable. In addition, applicants are able to exchange ideas on the subject with RCE researchers, which yields fresh knowledge and new contacts and sometimes a co-written article such as that on 'green cleaning'.
The following projects have been carried out at the RCE:
- Green cleaning - Green solution to cleaning polychrome surfaces: enzyme and ionic liquids-based systems (Irina Sandu, Portugal);
- The red road of the Iberian expansion: cochineal and the global dye trade (Ana Serrano, Portugal);
- EMIR: The Early Medieval Iron Weapons from Rhenen- Donderberg (NL) (Evelyne Godfrey, United Kingdom);
- Late Turner: Materials and techniques investigated 1987-1995, reassessed 2011-14 to be made available to a new generation of researchers (Joyce Townsend, United Kingdom);
- SOAC: An examination of the cause of water sensitivity in 20th C. manufactured artists oil paints (Aviva Stock Burn, United Kingdom);
- Cuyp technical study: An Investigation into the Materials and Techniques of paintings by Aelbert Cuyp and the School Dordrecht (Libby Sheldon, United Kingdom);
- EURODYE: Dyes in textiles from Romanian collections in a European context (Irina Petroviciu, Romania).
CHARISMA WP3, Course Stone Conservation (programme), 2009.
CHARISMA, samenvatting, RCE, 2013.
Download alle CHARISMA posters:
- Poster CHARISMA-informatieblad
- Poster CHARISMA-European Communities
- Poster CHARISMA-Review of extraction methods
- Poster CHARISMA-Joined research activity
- Poster CHARISMA-Collecting botanical sources
- Poster CHARISMA-Rare compound studies
- Poster CHARISMA-Creating colours expert meeting
Hallett, J., Textiles, trade and taste: Portugal and the world, ArchLab Acces Report, CHARISMA, 2011.
Sandu, I.C.A., I. Joosten, N. Leal, e.a., Optical Imaging Applications for the Study of Cultural Heritage Artifacts, Nova Publishers, pp. 65-108.
Sandu, I.C.A., Green Cleaning - Green solution to cleaning polychrome surfaces: enzyme and ionic liquids-based systems, ArchLab Acces Report, CHARISMA, 2011.
Programma CHARISMA-cursus Steenconservering, Amsterdam 2013.
Bekijk het filmpje over CHARISMA op YouTube
Maarten van Bommel
Alberto de Tagle, Ineke Joosten, Art Ness Proaño Gaibor, Han Neevel
Universita Degli Studi Di Perugia, Italy
Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique , France
Foundation For Research And Technology Hellas, Greece
The National Gallery, United Kingdom
Société Civile Synchrotron Soleil, France
Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche, Italy
Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika W Toruniu, Poland
Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Germany
Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia Atommagkutato Intezete, Hungary
Cercle Des Partenaires Du Patrimoine-Laboratoire De Recherche Des Monuments Historiques, France
British Museum, United Kingdom
Doerner Institut, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Germany
Idryma Ormylia, Greece
Opificio Delle Pietre Dure, Italy
Museo Nacional Del Prado, Spain
Koninklijk Instituut Voor Het Kunstpatrimonium, Belgium
Agenzia Per La Promozione Della Ricerca Europea, Italy
Laboratorio Nacional De Engenharia Civil, Portugal
Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia Wigner Fizikai Kutatokozpont, Hungary
Alma Mater Studiorum-Universita Di Bologna, Italy
Centre De Recherche Et De Restauration Des Musees De France, France
Manufacture, consolidation, cleaning and use of plaster casts, models and objects.
Cleaning unvarnished painting surfaces from the 20th century.
The painting methods of Rembrandt's pupil, Govert Flinck.
Artist Interviews as an essential source of information for the conservation of contemporary art.
The inventory of damages and problematic situations of art in public spaces.
The use of natural dyes on textiles and furniture.
New Strategies in the Conservation of Contemporary Art.
The degradation and conservation of plastics.
How to conserve cellulose acetate (CA) art works, based on the case study of two plastic (CA) books.
Degradation of polyurethane (PUR) elastomers: research into properties, degradation and conservation treatments.
The conservation of art works of broken, transparent, unsaturated polyester and polymethyl methacrylate.
Preservation Of Plastic ARTefacts in museum collections.
Influence of objective and subjective aspects in decision-making about the cleaning of objects.
Research into archaeologic and historic objects.
Fabrication techniques and conservation of archaeological metals.
Origin of red garnets in early medieval jewellery in the Netherlands.
Fabrication and origin of magnetic cannons, White Delft and a shipload of semi-finished articles.
Van Gogh's work process in the context of his time.
Mondriaan's Victory Boogie Woogie: his last work under the microscope.
Research into the history and application of early synthetic dyes.
Causes of water sensitivity in the oil paints of 20th century paintings.
Quantitative research on composition, use and policies concerning museum collections.more info >
In the museum sector, procedures and processes of collection management are analysed using figures and indicators to only a limited extent. As a result, decisions are often based on impressions or tradition.
Ad hoc quantitative analyses have been performed in recent years. Again and again it has proved difficult to generate reliable figures.
When comparing museums it was also revealed that the number of variables arising form an almost insurmountable barrier for benchmarking. The RCE therefore opted for a structural, long-term program with the focus on a statistical approach to research questions concerning collection management.
Under the Museometry programme, quantitative research is conducted on the composition, use and exploitation of museum collections. Trends and developments are distilled from the collected facts and figures on museum collections (museometry). The resulting figures and analyses are made available for the museum professionals and managers responsible for museum collections. In turn, they use this quantitative data for the formulation of various policies concerning these collections. In this way museometry contributes to evidence-based management (EBM) in the museum sector.
Projects under this program include:
- The Loan Monitor: a website that visualises on a map loan movements between national and international museums for exhibitions.
- The Modern Art Collection Audit (CMBK), a statistical analysis of how Netherlands museums have collected modern art from 1999 to 2009. The database, comprising acquisition data from about 40 museums with relevant collections of modern art, makes statistically based statements possible about the collection policy of the museums.
- The 20th century Artist Index, in which major artists are inventoried from the period 1870 to the present.
- Completion and verification of available data on international collection mobility, accessibility and cultural participation arising from the implementation of the indemnity scheme.
- An inventory and analysis of museum annual reports.
A user-friendly method for heritage managers to assess and manage risks themselves.more info >
The Collection risk management (CRM) program is aimed at minimizing the loss of value at the interface between preservation and use. The existing CRM methodology has been tested in different situations, developed and simplified in order to bring it within reach of smaller institutions with limited time and resources.
To this end, new instruments were developed and information necessary to quantify the various risks was generated and made available in the convenient form of a digital manual. The program concluded with an international meeting on risk management.
Risk management examines all the threats to which collections are exposed and combines preventive conservation, security and facility management. This forms the next step in the professionalization of collection preservation and management. In applying this strategy, the risks for a collection are identified, analysed and evaluated. These risks can then be compared on the basis of the expected value loss over a given period (risk assessment) and ranged to set priorities for measures to reduce this loss of value. This aids the collection manager in making informed and substantiated choices in the deployment of the often limited resources available to collection management.
Under the CRM program, the methodology was tested in case studies, courses and workshops, then further developed and simplified so that smaller institutions with limited time, resources and knowledge can also gain insight into their own situation. To this end knowledge must be generated to qualify or quantify the various risks and ultimately made available in a usable form. This process was carried out in a number of projects under the program. Knowledge development and deployment of the indemnity scheme also fell under this program. The field of security risks and calamities was covered in collaboration with the Safe Heritage programme.
The before-mentioned knowledge and instruments are for the most part collated in the Digital Collection Risk Management Manual. This describes the methodology step-by-step, provides instruments for conducting a risk analysis and sets out the available information on the ten most important damage factors. In this way, the user is able to carry out a risk analysis with their team. The Manual helps in formulating the right questions for external experts.
Two projects under the program were intended to generate data to aid in assessing risk scenarios and to determine extent of risk. On the one hand quantitative information was collected for events that could lead to loss of value (damage factors of fire, theft and vandalism, mechanical forces and water), and on the other, degradation processes (damage factors of climate, light, mechanical forces vibration and air pollution/dust). In addition, a model was developed under the Cost Effectiveness project for determining the cost-effectiveness of conservation measures.
Research on Paper
Finally the Metamorfoze project (National Programme for the Conservation of Paper Heritage) sought solutions for the preservation and treatment of original paper documents. The research focused on inherent deterioration such as ink corrosion, the usefulness (or uselessness) of air purification in depots and the development of a portable instrument for the on-the-spot determination of light sensitivity of objects.
The CRM programme concluded in 2012 with the meeting Reducing Risks to Heritage in collaboration with ICCROM and CCI.