The Research Agenda 2008-2012 includes five research programmes focussing on collection-management. Their binding factor is ‘valuation’.
Development of methods and techniques to objectify the value and appreciation of cultural heritage.more info >
Under 'valuation' in relation to heritage we mean making substantiated and verifiable statements about the value of an object or a collection, based on a question falling under an appropriate frame of reference and concerning certain stakeholders. Predetermined and predefined criteria are applied.
This explicit defining of an assigned value is necessary to steer preservation, development and utilisation and to enable a societal basis for heritage to emerge. After all, who determines the value of the collection now that the 'expert' no longer counts as the sole authority? How do you valuate an object or collection if there is no objective measurable value? How do you provide sufficient societal support for heritage at a time when the cultural sector is under pressure?
The Value and Valuation programme aimed to make the various players in the heritage field (owners, managers, policy makers and funders) aware of the importance of the intrinsic (non-financial) value and valuation of cultural heritage, and to develop methods and techniques to attribute value to objects and collections. As valuation benefits from a broad interdisciplinary approach, the emphasis lay on dialogue and collaboration with external partners. A new system was developed in close consultation with the museum world to facilitate the process of value attribution. This has resulted in the publication of On the museum scales: collection valuation in six steps.
This practical guide takes the user through the valuation process step-by-step and results in a description of object/collection significance, a valuation ranking or grouping, or an investment plan. With well-founded arguments it is possible to explain to others the value of an object or collection and the reasons for the value. This facilitates decision-making on interventions, making conflicting interests negotiable and making stories behind the collection accessible.
Research into the effectiveness of methods and means to make heritage and related knowledge accessible online.more info >
New media forms a tempting alternative to traditional analogue guides for the public as staff and resources in museums are generally scarce. But do they function as well or better than gallery texts, guided or audio tours?
Are some applications more effective than others? Are there any applications that actually generate more visitors, and if so, which?
The Accessibility programme focused on the effectiveness of virtual resources to make heritage visible and to interest new types of public. Possibilities include apps, 3D and AR techniques, and also social media like Facebook and YouTube. But what to choose from the overwhelming number of new techniques?
The RCE carried out an inventory to provide collection managers with an understanding of the developments and possibilities of new media (and the institutions that can assist in developing applications). This also aimed to chart the applications most effective for specific objectives for both content and generating visitors. The projects on which these questions were tested were diverse in nature:
- Conservation of two textile objects of polypropylene. In this project, the practical applicability of conservation knowledge about polypropylene was tested. In addition a conservation treatment of polypropylene was recorded for educational objectives and the conservation file placed online. As a result, both the object and the information are permanently accessible for consultation by collection managers and conservators.
- Imago revisited: research into two installations in a case study using good practice (developed during the Inside Installations project) regarding the daily and long-term management of complex (multimedia) installations.
- Generating and sharing knowledge online about the conservation of contemporary art in the two-year European project PRACTICs by museums, institutes and universities. Associated with this was a public testing of the film Installation Art: Who Cares? as an educational tool, to investigate how much visitors appreciated having a look 'behind the scenes'.
- CARTA project, an inventory of documentation projects and documentation systems with which research findings are linked to locations and artworks.
- Inventory of the operation of two thematic networks (INCCA Education and Postdoc Network) under INCCA.
- Archiving the website with all details of the Inside Installations project, the preservation and presentation of Installation Art Project (2004-2007), a research into the re-installation and documentation of 33 complex multimedia installations.
- Participation of the RCE as a research partner in the pilot project of MuseumApp, under which the effectiveness of this app for heritage institutions was studied.
- Development of guidelines to increase the effectiveness of museum institutions online.
Enrichment of the object in its context on the basis of technical art history and research, for the benefit of its conservation and restoration.more info >
Objects that have been handed down to us from the past can tell a story of their history of creation and how they have changed over time.
The Object in Context programme makes such stories accessible through research on the material object and its contextual clues (historical evidence). In addition, the program focuses on questions concerning the restoration and conservation of a range of objects, from classical antiquity to contemporary art, from paintings and textiles to metal and plastics.
Under Object in Context, analytical chemistry researchers and forensic specialists delve into cause and effect. Besides a keen eye for detail, they employ a research laboratory and technological methods that enable the visualization of evidence visible only at a molecular level. Although analytical research often forms the basis for research, collaboration with other disciplines, such as art and cultural history, is always sought as well.
Arts meets sciences
A connecting link between the many projects under Object in Context is the extent to which ageing is regarded as acceptable. That limit of acceptance is subjective and cannot be considered purely from the material-technical perspective. Thus the theme of 'perception of the surface' is key in several projects. This involves coupling the scientific 'looking' through apparatus with subjective, human visual perception.
Download here the comprehensive introduction to the Object in Context program, including an introduction to the projects in PDF.
Quantitative research on composition, use and policies concerning museum collections.more info >
In the museum sector, procedures and processes of collection management are analysed using figures and indicators to only a limited extent. As a result, decisions are often based on impressions or tradition.
Ad hoc quantitative analyses have been performed in recent years. Again and again it has proved difficult to generate reliable figures.
When comparing museums it was also revealed that the number of variables arising form an almost insurmountable barrier for benchmarking. The RCE therefore opted for a structural, long-term program with the focus on a statistical approach to research questions concerning collection management.
Under the Museometry programme, quantitative research is conducted on the composition, use and exploitation of museum collections. Trends and developments are distilled from the collected facts and figures on museum collections (museometry). The resulting figures and analyses are made available for the museum professionals and managers responsible for museum collections. In turn, they use this quantitative data for the formulation of various policies concerning these collections. In this way museometry contributes to evidence-based management (EBM) in the museum sector.
Projects under this program include:
- The Loan Monitor: a website that visualises on a map loan movements between national and international museums for exhibitions.
- The Modern Art Collection Audit (CMBK), a statistical analysis of how Netherlands museums have collected modern art from 1999 to 2009. The database, comprising acquisition data from about 40 museums with relevant collections of modern art, makes statistically based statements possible about the collection policy of the museums.
- The 20th century Artist Index, in which major artists are inventoried from the period 1870 to the present.
- Completion and verification of available data on international collection mobility, accessibility and cultural participation arising from the implementation of the indemnity scheme.
- An inventory and analysis of museum annual reports.
A website that visualises loan movements between national and international museums using a map.
Insight into the nature and magnitude of the acquisition of modern and contemporary art by museums in the period 1999-2009.Reading modeshare
There is only a fragmented view of modern art* in Dutch museums. No one knows for sure what is present in which collection and in what numbers.
* Here 'Modern art' is interpreted broadly and includes visual arts, graphic design, photography and applied art made after 1880.
This has lead to competitive acquisition between museums and the much-discussed case of the purchase of a Mondrian by the Rijksmuseum, while a loan from The Hague Municipal Museum should also have been considered.
The Netherlands Institute for Art History (RKD) - one of the most important art history expertise centres of the world - has a good overview of the distribution of classical art in Dutch museums, but the picture of modern art is fragmentary. Pronouncements about the collections of modern art in the Netherlands are difficult to substantiate quantitatively. Institutions like the Mondriaan Fund and the RKD declared a need for a better understanding of the subject.
The impetus for the research came partly from the need of policy makers for a heritage audit, and partly from the need to make the distribution of modern art in the Netherlands more transparent and to define the context more clearly. The Mondriaan Fund in particular found that clarity concerning the latter two aspects was clearly necessary.
The RCE has a tradition in the development of inventories of movable cultural heritage. For instance the service has been involved in the inventory of academic heritage, medical academic heritage, collection categories (Musip), the Verkade collection and historical computers. It was therefore evident that the RCE would take up the questions from the field.
The Modern Art Collection Audit (CMBK) took the form of a quantitative research into the way Dutch museums have collected modern art from 1999 to 2009. In 2010, an evaluation was made of the current methodical approach to data collection, treatment and processing. The learning points have been worked out and used to determine the development of the database. In 2010 the review of the connection between collection policy and the Artist Index was also realised (JB correct interpretation?).
The decision for a research project was made based on the following considerations:
• There was a clear question from the field (Mondriaan Fund, RKD);
• There was little insight into the Dutch Modern Art Collection;
• The ICN collection (now RCE collection) was involved in the project;
• The Dutch museums that collect modern art form a limited group, easily manageable as a research area for the Museometry programme.
The project aimed to offer insight into the acquisition of modern art by Dutch museums over the past decade. Future collection policy, collection management and provision of grants are also included.
The inventory was based on the following questions:
- Which Dutch museums have acquired modern art in the past 10 years?
- From which artists was work acquired?
- In which disciplines was work acquired?
- How do the acquisitions match the collection profiles of the museums?
- Where are overlaps and gaps?
- What does this mean for future collection policy, subsidies and collection management?
72 museums were approached with the request to provide their acquisition data from the previous 10 years. Data was received from 44 museums. Response = 61% n = 44.
An important additional outcome of the project was the realization that the collection of data on museum collections had to be organised in a less labour-intensive way. This has ultimately resulted in the Netherlands Digital Museum Collection (DiMCoN).
Kok, F., Presentatie project CMBK, 2010.
Supplementen t.b.v. deze presentatie:
Arjen Kok, Paul van Wel, Yuri van der Linden, Sylvia van Schaik, Evert Rodrigo, Daniëlle Rueck, Jan van Dam, Fransje Kuijvenhoven
Netherlands Museum Digital Collection: a platform for the digital access of museum collections.
During the Museum Congress museum professionals were surveyed on loan traffic (2010) and research (2011).
The inventory of specific quantitative data from museum annual reports as a source for museometry research.
Publication of the Index of Dutch visual artists, craftsmen and photographers, 1870-2009.
Outlining the interface between two fields of expertise of the RCE: monument conservation and museum support.
An online monitor with quantitative information on the activities of museums and their communities on Facebook and Twitter.
A user-friendly method for heritage managers to assess and manage risks themselves.more info >
The Collection risk management (CRM) program is aimed at minimizing the loss of value at the interface between preservation and use. The existing CRM methodology has been tested in different situations, developed and simplified in order to bring it within reach of smaller institutions with limited time and resources.
To this end, new instruments were developed and information necessary to quantify the various risks was generated and made available in the convenient form of a digital manual. The program concluded with an international meeting on risk management.
Risk management examines all the threats to which collections are exposed and combines preventive conservation, security and facility management. This forms the next step in the professionalization of collection preservation and management. In applying this strategy, the risks for a collection are identified, analysed and evaluated. These risks can then be compared on the basis of the expected value loss over a given period (risk assessment) and ranged to set priorities for measures to reduce this loss of value. This aids the collection manager in making informed and substantiated choices in the deployment of the often limited resources available to collection management.
Under the CRM program, the methodology was tested in case studies, courses and workshops, then further developed and simplified so that smaller institutions with limited time, resources and knowledge can also gain insight into their own situation. To this end knowledge must be generated to qualify or quantify the various risks and ultimately made available in a usable form. This process was carried out in a number of projects under the program. Knowledge development and deployment of the indemnity scheme also fell under this program. The field of security risks and calamities was covered in collaboration with the Safe Heritage programme.
The before-mentioned knowledge and instruments are for the most part collated in the Digital Collection Risk Management Manual. This describes the methodology step-by-step, provides instruments for conducting a risk analysis and sets out the available information on the ten most important damage factors. In this way, the user is able to carry out a risk analysis with their team. The Manual helps in formulating the right questions for external experts.
Two projects under the program were intended to generate data to aid in assessing risk scenarios and to determine extent of risk. On the one hand quantitative information was collected for events that could lead to loss of value (damage factors of fire, theft and vandalism, mechanical forces and water), and on the other, degradation processes (damage factors of climate, light, mechanical forces vibration and air pollution/dust). In addition, a model was developed under the Cost Effectiveness project for determining the cost-effectiveness of conservation measures.
Research on Paper
Finally the Metamorfoze project (National Programme for the Conservation of Paper Heritage) sought solutions for the preservation and treatment of original paper documents. The research focused on inherent deterioration such as ink corrosion, the usefulness (or uselessness) of air purification in depots and the development of a portable instrument for the on-the-spot determination of light sensitivity of objects.
The CRM programme concluded in 2012 with the meeting Reducing Risks to Heritage in collaboration with ICCROM and CCI.